Covalent Bonding

Covalent Bonding

  1. Covalent bonds are formed by atoms sharing electrons to form molecules. This type of bond usually formed between two non-metallic elements.
  2. In the formation of covalent bonds, atoms of non-metals will combine with each other to donate one, two or three electrons for sharing.
  3. The compound formed through the formation of covalent bonds is called the covalent compounds.

Examples of Covalent Compound

Covalent Compound Formula Covalent Compound Formula
Chlorine Cl2 Phosphorus P4
Hydrogen H2 Sulfur dioxide SO2
Oxygen O2 Carbon dioxide CO2
Nitrogen N2 Tetrachloro-methane CCl4


Examples of Formation of Covalent Compounds

Formation of Fluorine Molecule

  1. The electrons arrangement of a fluorine atom is 2.7
  2. To achieve octet electrons arrangement, 2 fluorine atoms share 1 pair of electrons between each other.
  3. As a result, a covalent bond formed between the 2 atoms.

Formation of Oxygen Molecule

  1. The electrons arrangement of an oxygen atom is 2.6
  2. To achieve octet electrons arrangement, 2 fluorine atoms share 2 pair of electrons between each other.
  3. As a result, 2 covalent bonds formed between the 2 atoms.

Formation of Carbon Dioxide Molecule


  1. The electrons arrangement of an oxygen atom is 2.6 and the electrons arrangement of a hydrogen atom is 1.
  2. To achieve octet electrons arrangement, the oxygen atom share 2 pair of electrons with 2 hydrogen atoms.
  3. The hydrogen atoms achieve duplet electrons arrangement after sharing electron with the oxygen atom.
  4. As a result, covalent bonds formed between the oxygen atom and the hydrogen atoms.


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